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Tuesday, November 3, 2020 | History

2 edition of optical recording of neural impulses from the olfactory bulb of the frog brain found in the catalog.

optical recording of neural impulses from the olfactory bulb of the frog brain

Mussadiq Shah

optical recording of neural impulses from the olfactory bulb of the frog brain

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Published by UMIST in Manchester .
Written in English


Edition Notes

StatementMussadiq Shah ; supervised by K.C. Persaud.
ContributionsPersaud, K. C., DIAS.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL16793995M

A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. It is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 14–16 billion neurons, and the estimated number of neurons in the cerebellum is.   An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, in vertebrates, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials away from the nerve cell function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles, and glands. In certain sensory neurons, such as those for touch and warmth, the axons are called afferent nerve.   Acts most similar to a higher order association cortex (the olfactory bulb acts more like a primary sensory cortex). Projects to PFC, amygdala, and entorhinal and perirhinal cortex (multisensory assoc areas dealing with memory). Association cortex interacting with wide spread regions of brain to mediate olfactory-informed behavior.


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optical recording of neural impulses from the olfactory bulb of the frog brain by Mussadiq Shah Download PDF EPUB FB2

Saggau, P. and ten Bruggencate, G. () Topology related real-time monitoring of neural activity in hippocampal brain slices by noninvasive optical recording — a step towards functional aspects of long-term potentiation.

In: Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus. Eds: H.L. Haas and G. Buzsaki, pp. – Springer, Berl in : P. Saggau. In the olfactory bulb, axons of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the same olfactory receptor converge on specific glomeruli. These afferents form axodendritic synapses with mitral/tufted and periglomerular cell dendrites, whereas the dendrites of mitral/tufted cells and periglomerular interneurons form dendrodendritic synapses.

The two types of intraglomerular Cited by: Cinelli AR, Salzberg BM () Early and late responses in slices of salamander olfactory bulb: optical recording of electrical events that depend upon Ca++ Soc Neurosci Abstr Google Scholar Cohen LB, Davila HV, Waggoner AS () Changes in axon fluorescence (abstr.).Cited by: 1.

Fast, multiple-site optical recording and video imaging techniques were combined to visualize the olfactory processing stream as it flowed through rat olfactory bulb slices stained with the. The neural basis of olfactory information processing and olfactory percept formation is a topic of intense investigation as new genetic, optical, and psychophysical tools are brought to bear to identify the sites and interaction modes of cortical areas involved in the central processing of olfactory by: 5.

Since this first study, GECIs have been extensively used in zebrafish to monitor neural activity in various behavioral paradigms, including investigating the role of the optic tectum in prey capture, performing brain-wide monitoring of neural dynamics in a sensorimotor virtual environment or testing neural coding of odors by the olfactory bulb.

The sensory impulses pass from the olfactory bulbs through the _____ _____ to interpreting center of the brain. olfactory bulb. an enlargement of the nerve. olfactory tract. once taste signals are transmitted to the brain, several motor neural pathways are activated that are important to.

The nerve that carries neural impulses from the ear to the brain, which gives rise to the experience of hearing. Place Theory. Olfactory Bulb. The area in the front of the brain aboce the nostrils that receives sensory input from olfactory receptors in the nose.

Pheromones. pathway to the brain- along the olfactory nerve, to the prefrontal cortex (processes whether smell is pleasant of aversive), olfactory nerve, and amygdala 4.

resulting perception- as a result, you know the smell is good or bad and may even experience memories related to the smell (caused by amygdala). between media of different optical densities at a right angle.

she has three types of cones that connect individually to neural pathways to the brain. The cubs only have two types. After traveling through the olfactory bulbs, nerve impulses pass along the _____ _____ to the olfactory.

Mackay-Sim, in Progenitor and Stem Cell Technologies and Therapies, Neurogenesis throughout life. Olfactory sensory neurons are replaced by proliferation and differentiation of basal cells if they are destroyed with a toxin or if their axons are severed.

This neurogenic process is seen in fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals, including non-human primates (Graziadei et al., ). Abstract. This laboratory is using electrophysiologic recording, optical recording, and computer modeling to study how odors are encoded by the olfactory epithelium (OE) and bulb (OB).

Odour dis- crimination by frog olfactory receptors: a second study, Chem. Senses Flavor, 3 () 29 Salzberg, B.M., Obaid, A.L., Senseman, D.M.

and Gain- er, H., Optical recording of action potentials from verte- brate nerve terminals using potentiometric probes provides evidence for sodium and calcium components, Nature (London),   Odours are received by olfactory receptors, which send their axons to the first sensory neuropils, the antennal lobes (in insects) or the olfactory bulb (in vertebrates).

From here, processed olfactory information is relayed to higher-order brain centres. Optogenetics (from Greek optikós 'seen, visible') most commonly refers to a biological technique that involves the use of light to control neurons that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion such, optogenetics is a neuromodulation method that uses a combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control the activities of individual neurons in living.

The olfactory bulb receives neural signals from a sheet of sensory and R.C. Gesteland (). Ultrastructural organization of receptor cell axons in frog olfactory nerve. Brain Res., The morphology and physiology of the granule cells in the rabbit olfactory bulb revealed by intracellular recording and HRP injection.

Brain Res. 6. The olfactory epithelium of fish, like other vertebrates, consists of three cell types: receptor cells, supporting cells and basal cells. The receptor cell, which is a bipolar primary sensory cell, sends a slender cylindrical dendrite toward the surface of the epithelium and is directly connected with the olfactory bulb by its axon.

The neural basis of olfactory information processing and olfactory percept formation is a topic of intense investigation as new genetic, optical, and psychophysical tools are brought to bear to.

Tasaki I, Byrne PM. Swelling of frog dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord produced by afferent volley of impulses.

Brain Res. ; – Tasaki I, Byrne PM. Large mechanical changes in the bullfrog olfactory bulb evoked by afferent fiber stimulation. Brain. The AL, analogous to the olfactory bulb of vertebrates, is typically composed of spheroid structures, called glomeruli (singular: glomerulus) surrounded by glia (Anton and Homberg, ;Kirschner.

These groups of cilia then transmit messages to neurons that converge on the olfactory bulb (on the bottom of frontal lobes) which serves as the brains central region for processing smell, the olfactory bulb connects with several regions of the brain through the olfactory tract. including the limbic system (emotion) as well as regions of the.

Excitation and adaptation of frog olfactory receptor neurones upon stimulation with second messengers and natural odorants 9 D. Schild, J. DeSimone, S. Hellwig 3. Receptor selectivity and dimensionality of odours at the stage of the olfactory receptor cells 21 GiJJes Sicard 4.

Results suggest that, in the frog olfactory bulb, taurine is contained in primary olfactory afferents and short axon-like cells of the GCL co-localizing GABA and taurine.

View Show abstract. Dendritic origin of late events in optical recordings from the salamander olfactory bulb. Optical recording of neuronal activity in an invertebrate central nervous system: Simultaneous monitoring of several neurons.J.

Simultanesite optical recording of neural activities in the brain. Multiple site optical recording of transmembrane voltage (MSORTV), single-unit recordings, and evoked field potentials from the olfactory bulb of skate (Raja erinacea). J Neurophysiol. Dec; 64 (6)– Cinelli AR, Salzberg BM.

Dendritic origin of late events in optical recordings from salamander olfactory bulb. J Neurophysiol. The volume of the goat olfactory bulb is cm 3. (Kavoi, B.M. and Jameela, H., Comparative morphometry of the olfactory bulb, tract, and stria in the human, dog, and goat.

Int. Morphol. 29,) The olfactory bulb is about % of the human brain by volume and 2% of the mouse brain by volume. The main olfactory bulbs (MOBs) are now one of the most interesting parts of the brain in at least two points; the first station of the olfaction as an excellent model for understanding the neural.

The functional organization and synaptic physiology of olfactory bulb glomeruli were studied in rat in vitro slice preparations stained with the voltage-sensitive dye RH Optical signals were recorded with a element photodiode array at high temporal resolution.

Pharmacological and ionic manipulations were used to investigate synaptic responses to stimulation of the olfactory nerve. Optical Measurement of Membrane Potential.

The first VSDs applied to invertebrate preparations showed that it was possible to optically record fast membrane potential changes like action potentials in single neurons [].These pioneering recordings inspired the next decades of research, much of which has been targeted toward making measurements from the intact brain during the processing.

This oscillatory activity seems to be intrinsic to the olfactory bulb neural network, because olfactory or antennal nerve stimulation gives rise to EEG or LFP oscillations (Freeman, ) that persist after cryogenic blockade of centrifugal afferents (Gray and Skinner, ).

These observations are consistent with our model in which. Extracting information from spike trains of olfactory bulb neurons Optical recording of neuronal activity: parallel versus serial methods Temporal patterns of membrane potential in the olfactory bulb observed with intracellular recording and voltage-sensitive dye imaging: early hyperpolarization.

Optical mapping of the. Optical monitoring of activity provides new kinds of information about brain function. Two examples are discussed in this article. First, the spike activity of many individual neurons in small ganglia can be determined.

Second, the spatio-temporal characteristics of coherent activity in the brain can be directly measured. This article discusses both general characteristics of optical.

Peripheral waves (PWs) in the channel catfish are odorant-induced neural oscillations of synchronized populations of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that appear after the initial ∼ msec of the response. The mean dominant frequency during the initial 2 sec of PW activity is ∼28 Hz, declining to ∼20 Hz in the last sec of a 5 sec stimulus.

The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory ly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, hearing, touch, taste, smell, and balance.

Spors and Grinvald combined optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes to obtain high spatial (10–20 μm) and temporal (50– Hz) resolution measurements from the olfactory bulbs of rodents.

Using these methods, the authors found odorant-specific glomerular modules of activity similar to those previously described with optical imaging. B. Synaptic Transmission at the First Processing Stage.

Unlike other sensory neurons, axonal termini of olfactory sensory neurons synapse directly onto second-order neurons within the forebrain (90,).There, they form synapses impinging onto both output (second-order) neurons and local interneurons of the olfactory bulb (, ).At least in mammals, this makes the olfactory bulb.

Rubin BD, Katz LC. Optical imaging of odorant representations in the mammalian olfactory bulb. Neuron. ; – Ruthazer ES, Li J, Cline HT.

Stabilization of axon branch dynamics by synaptic maturation. J Neurosci. ; – In mammalian brains, sensory-evoked intrinsic optical signals are thought to follow hemodynamics through neurovascular coupling. With detailed manipulations of the mouse olfactory bulb circuit, Vincis et al.

show that parenchymal intrinsic signals originate from changes in light scattering of sensory neuron axons and are largely independent of neurovascular coupling.

Whole Tissue Voltage Clamp of Frog Olfactory Mucosa Using a Modified Ussing Chamber. Pages Optical Recording of Neural Signals in Rat Geniculate Ganglion. Pages Neural Responses of Olfactory Bulb and Pyriform Cortex to Odors of.

An olfactory receptor, which is a dendrite of a specialized neuron, responds when it binds certain molecules inhaled from the environment by sending impulses directly to the olfactory bulb of the brain. Humans have about 12 million olfactory receptors, distributed among hundreds of different receptor types that respond to different odors.

Effect of nerve impulses on the membrane potential of glial cells in the central nervous system of amphibia. Elaboration of glial cell processes in the rat olfactory bulb associated with early learning.

Brain Research, Vol.No. 2 Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 46, No. 1. Chapter 6 Electrophysiology of the avian retina.It has been shown (Parker et al., ) that the dominant frequency of oscillations of summated impulse responses of small populations of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to amino acid odorants was Hz and that the oscillations were triggered and enhanced by trisodium citrate with its action of Ca 2+ chelation from the surface of the.From the olfactory bulb they travel up to a higher region of the brain.

Do smells affect us? The answer is yes, and they have a definite psychological effect on us. Consider the purchase of perfumes and colognes and that we like to sniff flowers.

Also, olfactory centers in the brain are linked with areas that process memories and emotion.